How is fungi transferred?
How fungal infections are spread. Infections are spread by direct skin contact (with humans or animals), or indirectly from contaminated articles on floors or in the soil. Shared changing rooms and showers are often a source of tinea, while some infections are spread by sharing of items such as towels.
How do you send a specimen for a fungal culture?
Specimens from the ear, nose, nasopharynx, and mouth are usually submitted on a sterile swab. All specimens from the lower respiratory tract should be collected in a sterile wide-mouth bottle or sputum cup. A first morning expectorated sputum specimen is optimal.
What is done in the mycology lab?
Our mycology laboratory is involved in the study of fungi causing human disease. Diagnosis involves microscopic examination of infected tissue and culture to identify the disease-causing fungi. Accurate diagnosis enables the clinician to prescribe appropriate antifungal treatment.
What are the laboratory diagnostic methods for fungal infections?
Diagnosis of fungal infection has relied primarily on methods such as direct microscopic examination of clinical samples, histopathology, and culture. Such approaches are dependent on personnel with relatively high levels of specific mycology training.
How are bacteria transmitted?
Bacteria are transmitted to humans through air, water, food, or living vectors. The principal modes of transmission of bacterial infection are contact, airborne, droplet, vectors, and vehicular.
How is ring worm transmitted?
People can get ringworm after touching an animal that has ringworm. Many different kinds of animals can spread ringworm to people, including dogs and cats, especially kittens and puppies. Other animals, like cows, goats, pigs, and horses can also spread ringworm to people.
How do you transport skin scraping?
Skin scrapes, nail clippings and small hair pieces should be taken and placed in a sterile universal or Dermapak, and sent to the laboratory as soon as possible. Samples can be stored at room temperature before transportation.
How do you preserve a fungus specimen?
Most fungi can be preserved, with or without cryoprotectants, in liquid nitrogen or in standard home freezers. With freeze drying, or lyophilization, the fungal cultures are frozen and subsequently dried under vacuum. The method is highly successful with cultures that produce mitospores.
What is mycology testing?
Skin, hair and nail tissue are collected for microscopy and culture (mycology) to establish or confirm the diagnosis of a fungal infection. Exposing the site to long-wavelength ultraviolet radiation (Wood lamp) can help identify some fungal infections of hair (tinea capitis) because the infected hair fluoresces green.
What is a Galactomannan test?
Detection of galactomannan in blood is used to diagnose invasive aspergillosis infections in humans. This is performed with monoclonal antibodies in a double-sandwich ELISA; this assay from Bio-Rad Laboratories was approved by the FDA in 2003 and is of moderate accuracy.
Which of the following methods is used for detection of fungal elements?
The most common technique is conventional PCR, while other recent techniques include nested PCR, to obviate low levels of target pathogens, multiplex PCR, to detect several pathogens simultaneously, real-time PCR, to quantify fungi on seeds, and magnetic-capture hybridization PCR.
What are the mycology specimen guidelines?
Outlines on optimal specimen collection, transport, and processing details are listed in the Mycology Specimen Guidelines. When specimens are obtained for microbiologic study, it is critical to consider all possible etiologic agents in the differential diagnosis and to submit specimens appropriately.
What are the basic terms as related to mycology?
Definitions – basic terms as they relate to mycology A. Basic Structures 1. Hypha (hyphae plural) – fundamental tube-like structural units of fungi. a. Septate – divided by cross walls b. Aseptate – lacking cross walls 2. Mycelium – a mass / mat of hyphae forming the vegative portion of the fungus a. Aerial – growing or existing in the air
Who is known as the father of medical mycology?
In 1910 Raymond Sabouraud published his book Les Teignes, which was a comprehensive study of dermatophytic fungi. He is also regarded as father of medical mycology. Importance of fungi: Fungi inhabit almost every niche in the environment and humans are exposed to these organisms in various fields of life.
How should we interpret results from drainage cultures of bacterial infection?
Results from drainage cultures should be interpreted with caution, as many drainage locations can be colonized with yeast microbiota, which may be mistaken for true pathogens. Clinical, histopathologic, and direct examination correlations are important to achieve the correct diagnosis in these settings.