What is chloramphenicol acetyltransferase activity?
Chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (or CAT) is a bacterial enzyme (EC 2.3. 1.28) that detoxifies the antibiotic chloramphenicol and is responsible for chloramphenicol resistance in bacteria. A histidine residue, located in the C-terminal section of the enzyme, plays a central role in its catalytic mechanism.
Where is chloramphenicol acetyltransferase found?
The most common is by enzymatic acetylation and inactivation by chloramphenicol acetyltransferases (CATs). Most CAT genes are located on mobile genetic elements, can be distributed to other bacteria, and often confer resistance to other classes of antimicrobial drugs.
How does chloramphenicol work?
Chloramphenicol is used in the treatment of infections caused by bacteria. It works by killing bacteria or preventing their growth.
What bacteria is chloramphenicol resistant?
Pseudomonas putida KT2440 is a chloramphenicol-resistant bacterium that is able to grow in the presence of this antibiotic at a concentration of up to 25 μg/ml.
What is CAT biochemistry?
The CAT gene provides instructions for making pieces (subunits) of an enzyme called catalase. Four identical subunits, each attached (bound) to an iron-containing molecule called a heme group, form the functional enzyme.
Is chloramphenicol acetyltransferase a reporter gene?
Chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) is the classic example among reporter genes. The enzyme catalyzes the transfer of an acetyl remnant of acetyl CoA to chloramphenicol. The cell lysate to be examined is incubated with acetyl CoA and [14C]-labeled chloramphenicol. The quantity of available CAT is measured.
What is the chemical name for chloramphenicol?
2,2-dichlor-N- [(aR,bR)-b-hydroxy-a-hydroxymethyl- 4-nitrophenethyl] acetamide
What is chloramphenicol chemical structure?
Molecular Formula. C11H12Cl2N2O5.
What is chloramphenicol resistance?
Chloramphenicol inhibits protein synthesis by binding to the 50S ribosomal subunit and inhibiting peptide chain elongation. 99. The major chloramphenicol resistance mechanism is the acquisition of a chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT). Acetylation prevents drug from binding to its target.
Which bacterial species and strains does chloramphenicol affect?
Chloramphenicol is effective against S. typhi, H. influenzae, E. coli, Neisseria species, Staphylococcus and Streptococcus species, Rickettsia, and lymphogranuloma-psittacosis group of organisms.
How do CAT genes work?
In each pair of chromosomes, a cat inherited one chromosome from each parent. Therefore, 19 chromosomes are inherited from the mother and 19 from the father. Each chromosome carries distinct variants of genes (alleles). The expression of the genes depends on which alleles the cat carries for each gene.
What is CAT gene?
How does chloramphenicol work to kill bacteria?
Chloramphenicol is known as a broad-spectrum antibiotic, which means it is effective against infections caused by a wide variety of bacteria. Chloramphenicol works by preventing bacteria from producing proteins that are essential to them. Chloramphenicol can potentially have side effects on the bone marrow, where blood cells are made.
Is chloramphenicol a penicillin?
Chloramphenicol is an antibiotic that affects several types of bacteria, but it is not penicillin. What makes these two different is the chemical structure and chloramphenicol does not cause allergic reactions as penicillin does. Often, chloramphenicol is used for dealing with infections, especially with people allergic to penicillin.
What does chloramphenicol do?
Chloramphenicol is an antibiotic useful for the treatment of a number of bacterial infections. This includes as an eye ointment to treat conjunctivitis. By mouth or by injection into a vein, it is used to treat meningitis, plague, cholera, and typhoid fever .