What is bacteriophage plasmid?

What is bacteriophage plasmid?

Antibiotic-resistance genes are often carried by conjugative plasmids, which spread within and between bacterial species. It has long been recognized that some viruses of bacteria (bacteriophage; phage) have evolved to infect and kill plasmid-harbouring cells.

What is a bacteriophage vector?

Phage vectors consist of an essentially complete phage genome, often M13 phage, into which is inserted DNA encoding the protein or peptide of interest (Figure 1). Typically, the remainder of the phage genome is left unchanged and provides the other gene products needed for the phage life cycle.

What is a vector plasmid?

A plasmid is a small, circular, double-stranded DNA molecule that is distinct from a cell’s chromosomal DNA. Scientists have taken advantage of plasmids to use them as tools to clone, transfer, and manipulate genes. Plasmids that are used experimentally for these purposes are called vectors.

Why are plasmids and bacteriophages used as vectors?

Plasmid are used as cloning vectors, include ori site or origin of replication, needed for replication in the bacterial cells. Unique restriction sites, so that the restriction enzymes can be used to cut the plasmid and DNA of interest can be inserted into the plasmid. 2. pUC19 is an example for an E.

What is bacteriophage in microbiology?

A bacteriophage (/bækˈtɪərioʊfeɪdʒ/), also known informally as a phage (/ˈfeɪdʒ/), is a virus that infects and replicates within bacteria and archaea. The term was derived from “bacteria” and the Greek φαγεῖν (phagein), meaning “to devour”.

What is difference between plasmid and bacteriophage?

In contrast to phages, plasmids exist independently of the host chromosome and are generally non-lethal [29]. Phages also exist independently of bacterial chromosomes but rely on the bacterial machinery for replication [29,30]. However, those phages that are lytic will be under greater selective pressure than plasmids.

What is plasmid Slideshare?

Plasmids are small double-stranded DNA molecules, usually circular that can exist independently of host chromosomes and are present in many bacteria (they are also present in some yeasts and other fungi). • They have their own replication origins and are autonomously replicating and stably inherited .

What is cloning plasmid?

DNA cloning is the process of making multiple, identical copies of a particular piece of DNA. A circular piece of plasmid DNA has overhangs on its ends that match those of a gene fragment. The plasmid and gene fragment are joined together to produce a gene-containing plasmid.

What is a plasmid simple definition?

A plasmid is a small, often circular DNA molecule found in bacteria and other cells. Plasmids are separate from the bacterial chromosome and replicate independently of it. They generally carry only a small number of genes, notably some associated with antibiotic resistance.

Which is a bacteriophage?

A bacteriophage is a type of virus that infects bacteria. In fact, the word “bacteriophage” literally means “bacteria eater,” because bacteriophages destroy their host cells. All bacteriophages are composed of a nucleic acid molecule that is surrounded by a protein structure.

What are bacteriophages used for?

Bacteriophages (BPs) are viruses that can infect and kill bacteria without any negative effect on human or animal cells. For this reason, it is supposed that they can be used, alone or in combination with antibiotics, to treat bacterial infections.

What is the difference between vector and plasmid?

The key difference between plasmid and vector is that plasmid is a type of vector and is a circular, double-stranded extra-chromosomal DNA molecule of some bacterial species while vector is a self-replicating DNA molecule that acts as a vehicle for delivering foreign DNA into host cells.