What is leaf margin analysis?
Leaf margin analysis (LMA) is a widely used method that applies present- day linear correlation between the proportion of woody dicotyledonous species with untoothed leaves (P) and mean annual temperature (MAT) to estimate paleotemperatures from fossil leaf floras.
What are the 4 types of leaf margins?
Leaf Edges or Margins
- Entire Leaf: The margin is even and smooth around the entire leaf edge.
- Toothed or Serrated Leaf: The margin has a series of toothlike pointed teeth around the entire leaf edge.
- Lobed Leaf: The margin has an indention or indentions that go less than halfway to the leaf midrib or midline.
What is the most very basic idea of leaf margin analysis?
Leaf margin analysis is a way of telling average temperature by looking at the shape of leaves. Scientists have observed that in warm tropical areas, you find a higher percentage of leaves with smooth edges (aka “margins”) like in figure A; the opposite is true in cooler climates, more like figure B.
What is lobate leaf margin?
Small lobes around leaf edges, smaller than lobed. Lobed leaves (or petals, etc.) are divided to about the mid-point between the midrib and the margin.
Do leaves have the same margin or edges?
Leaves also have stipules, small green appendages usually found at the base of the petiole. Most leaves have a midrib, which travels the length of the leaf and branches to each side to produce veins of vascular tissue. The edge of the leaf is called the margin. Within each leaf, the vascular tissue forms veins.
Why are leaves jagged?
Dr Dana Royer, who authored the study with Dr Peter Wilf at Pennsylvania State University, says that the jagged, pointy edges on leaves are packed with xylem, a tissue that transports water and nutrients in sap. “This loss of water helps pull more sap up from the roots.
What are 5 examples of leaf margins?
There are many different types of leaf margins. A few examples include: Smooth (Figure 4), Saw-Toothed (serrate—Figure 5), very Irregular (Figure 6), and even Armed with sharp spines (Figure 7).
What are the 3 types of leaf arrangements?
1 There are three basic types of leaf arrangements found in woody trees and shrubs: alternate, opposite, and whorled.
Do all leaves have a smooth edge?
In short, leaf edges are just the side of the leaf. If you have looked closely at different leaves you may have noticed that the edges, sides, or margins of leaves are not all the same. Some of them are smooth and others seem to be sharp.
What are the three types of leaf margin?
What is a Sinuate leaf?
Leaf Margins: Sinuate. Strongly wavy margins with shallowly rounded divisions within the same plane of the blade. In contrast, an undulate margin has wavy margins that occur above and below the plane of the leaf. A sinuate leaf is often mis-identified as being lobulate.
Why do leaves have different margins?
Leaf-margin characteristics of tree species follow a predictable pattern based on climate. families wherein species characteristic of moist tropical forests have leaves with entire margins, whereas those species found in temperate forests generally have lobed or toothed margins.
What is the leaf margin of a sinuate leaf like?
The leaf margin of a sinuate leaf has slightly jagged edges and is often confused with a lobed leaf, but you just need to look closely. Crenate leaves are quite similar to undulate leaves, with the difference that these have an even edge pointing upwards, as do serrate margin leaves. They have a scalloped margin.
What is the difference between a sinuate leaf and undulate leaf?
Strongly wavy margins with shallowly rounded divisions within the same plane of the blade. In contrast, an undulate margin has wavy margins that occur above and below the plane of the leaf. A sinuate leaf is often mis-identified as being lobulate.
What are the types of leaf margins?
Leaf margins: main part of the leaf, usually large and flat. Undulate: having a wavy margin. Sinuate: with a sinous margin. Serrate: having a sharp edge.
What is the difference between sinuate and undulate margins?
Leaf Margins: Sinuate. Strongly wavy margins with shallowly rounded divisions within the same plane of the blade. In contrast, an undulate margin has wavy margins that occur above and below the plane of the leaf.